Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome occurs for the woman who takes medicines for development of eggs in her ovary. As a result of injected drugs the ovaries can become swollen. One in every four women who takes injectible method for fertility eggs will develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Often the symptoms will get resolved within a week, if she does not get pregnant. But the symptoms will continue if the woman gets pregnant. The range of symptoms varies from mild to severe ranging from severe cramps, nausea and vomiting.
Initial symptoms will begin within a week of taking injectible eggs for stimulating ovulation. Moderate form of symptoms includes abdominal pain or cramps, bloating sensation, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal cramps will not be present always and it may come and go frequently. In severe cases, there will be rapid weight gain, severe cramps, severe vomiting and nausea, decreased urine output and shortness of breath. The abdominal area will become bloated and enlarged and tender to touch.
The main cause for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is undergoing treatment of fertility injection for ovulation. The injection will act directly on the ovaries and triggers them to produce eggs. Some of the drugs that cause this syndrome are follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin. It can cause intense pain on the ovaries and they develop swelling.
Who are at risk?
Women who are taking chorionic gonadotropin injection for ovulation, getting more doses of HCG injection, and women in age group of 25-35 are likely to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Women with high levels of estrogen and polycystic ovarian syndrome have high risk of developing severe symptoms.
In rare cases, complications may occur for women who undergo fertility therapy. There can be changes in the levels of sodium and potassium and other important ions. Blood clots can occur in legs and large blood vessels. Bleeding can occur due to rupture of cyst inside the ovary. Respiratory problems may occur in some women.
Your doctor will look for the symptoms and order for X-ray of the chest, ultrasound scan of abdomen, blood culture, electrolytes test, and liver function test and urine analysis.
Mild form of symptoms will get settle within a week and do not require any treatment. For moderate type of symptoms of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, affected women are given medications are given for controlling nausea and vomiting. Your gynecologist will monitor your health condition closely by measuring urine output, checking weight daily, taking ultrasound scans, checking blood test results and electrolyte conditions, and draining excess of fluids from the abdomen.
For severe type of symptoms the patient will be hospitalized and put on intravenous fluids. In rare cases, surgery is done for ovarian cyst rupture or for liver complications. Anticoagulants are given for preventing blood clots.
Lifestyle Changes :
Drink plenty of water or fluids that contain electrolytes. Keep your legs in elevated position to prevent blood clots and leg pain. For managing pain you can take pain killers like Tylenol. Engage in light physical activity and avoid strenuous work. Avoid sexual activity since it can cause rupture of cyst. Monitor your weight closely and inform your doctor if you observe unusual weight gain.
Your doctor can make a customized plan for preventing ovarian hyperstimulaiton syndrome. She can adjust the dosage of medications that gives minimal symptoms. Coasting is a procedure done for managing the estrogen levels to reduce the severity of symptoms. The follicles of both mature and immature ones will be removed for decreasing the chance of ovarian syndrome symptoms.