Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Diabetes mellitus Type 2 develops on adult and is a chronic condition. People with Type 2 diabetes will develop resistance to insulin. Either their body will not produce any insulin or their body metabolism changes its way of breaking down sugars. There is no cure for this chronic disorder and medications are given for controlling the symptoms. Nowadays Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent in children due to childhood obesity.

It begins as slow process in young children. Over time, there will be high sugar level in your blood affecting the nerves and blood vessels causing more complications.

Symptoms :

There will be increased thirst since excess of sugar builds up in your bloodstream. It can also cause frequent urination for the same reason. The sugar particles may not move into your cells and you may feel tired due to depletion of energy. This can cause increased hunger drive which will make you to eat more. Some of the other symptoms of Type 2 diabetes are fatigue, weight loss, blurred vision, and slow healing of wounds or sores. Many people in pre-diabetic stage will have dark patches on their skin more particularly in the neck and armpits which is an indication of insulin resistance.

Who are at risk?

People who are middle aged, obese, having family history of diabetes, having blood pressure or cholesterol and who lead a sedentary lifestyle are prone to develop Type 2 diabetes.

Causes :

Being overweight and lack of any physical exercise are the two main causes for getting Type 2 diabetes. According to the report given by CDC 95% of the diabetic patients in the USA are obese. The body develops resistance to insulin which means the system fails to respond to normal insulin level in people affected with diabetes. Pancreas may not secrete enough amounts of insulin for some people and for others it produces absolutely no insulin at all. As a result, the sugar starts piling up in the bloodstream developing diabetes.

Risk Factors :

Very often obese people develop Type 2 diabetes but there are people with normal weight having this disorder. People who are overweight, people for whom cholesterol level is high, people who live sedentary life, and people with family history of diabetes are likely to develop this condition. Getting old increases the chance of developing diabetes. Being in prediabetic stage for long time is likely to cause Type 2 diabetes.

Complications :

Just like in Type 1 diabetes, diabetes mellitus of Type 2 also produces complications. Chronic condition of diabetes can damage the tiny blood vessels or capillaries causing cardiovascular problems and high blood pressure. The risk of getting a stroke is 4 times higher for diabetic people than in others.

It can cause nerve damage leading to various problems in the legs and foot. It can affect your kidneys and retina of the eyes. Type 2 diabetes can lower the bone density leading to osteoporosis.

Tests :

Glycated hemoglobin test is the major testing procedure for detecting Type 2 diabetes. Sometimes your doctor may order for fasting blood sugar test and oral glucose tolerance test for confirming diabetes. Of all the other testing methods, A1C is the best available test for detecting diabetes.

Treatment :

Based on the level of blood sugar, your doctor will prescribe medications (insulin) and other drugs to keep sugar level in control. You have to accustom to healthy eating and do regular exercises. Watch what you eat daily and identify which foods would likely to increase blood sugar level. You can prepare a chart of diet with consulting your doctor or dietician.

On certain medical conditions like infection, cold, fever or any other illness your blood sugar level may increase sharply. Similarly stress can contribute for high blood sugar and change in hormone levels can alter the normal level of blood sugar in diabetic patients. Foods that contain high glycemic index value can raise your blood sugar and hence it is essential for you to choose food items that have low glycemic index.

You should be active instead of sticking on to sedentary lifestyle. Practice exercise daily after consulting your doctor. Doing exercises for at least half-an-hour will be beneficial in burning excess calories and lowering blood sugar. Stick on to the medications or insulin therapy as suggested by your doctor. Your doctor will choose the right dosage and right set of medications for lowering your blood sugar level. Some drugs like glipizide, glyburide and glimepiride are given for producing natural insulin by the pancreas. Drugs like precise and glucophage are prescribed for inhibiting the action of enzymes that breaks down carbohydrates into sugar substances.

Injections like Bvetta or Victoza are given for chronic diabetic cases. In addition insulin will be given as oral pills or by injection. Bariatric surgery is done for obese people to reduce excess of weight. But this procedure is expensive and carries some risk.

Once you start taking medications, it is your responsibility to maintain the normal sugar level in blood.Many factors can cause abnormal increase of blood sugar (hyperglycemia) leading to many complications. On the reverse, the blood sugar may suddenly drop down below the normal reading (hypoglycemia) and on such circumstances you need to take additional sugar for maintaining metabolism. You need to know about the symptoms of lowered blood sugar and abnormally high sugar level.

Lifestyle Changes :

Follow the instructions given by your doctor and monitor your blood sugar level closely. Take medications daily and do physical exercises to manage your weight. Quit smoking and avoid alcohol and restrict the amount of sweets in your diet. Accustom to healthy diet and active lifestyle which will help you to overcome many symptoms of Type 2 diabetes.

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