Akinesia is the condition in which there is impairment of motor function. Akinesia means “without movement”. The basal ganglion of the brain gets affected affecting movement of the body. Medical conditions like Parkinson’s disease will show symptoms of akinesia. Either the movement is totally lost or there is reduction of movement of muscle, when a person gets affected with this disorder. Paralysis can also cause akinesia temporarily as side effect. Sometimes, the symptom of this disorder is confused with that of schizophrenia resembling negative symptoms of depression and hence the disease remains untreated for long time.
During the progress of disease, the brain gets affected damaging the pathways of nerve signals. Initially the symptoms start with tremors and delayed movement which will eventually turn into complete loss of movement. Intake of certain psychotic drugs can cause this disorder. Very often akinesia is seen as a side effect for patients who suffer from Parkinson’s disease.
People with history of heart problems may develop akinetic septum, a rare condition affecting the heart badly. It deprives the heart with oxygen and is life threatening. Sometimes, chromosomal abnormalities may lead to congenital (inherited by birth) akinesia creating impairment of movements right from conception.
Accident or trauma caused to the head can affect the brain restricting the movement of body parts.
Any drug that affects the basal ganglion of the brain may cause akinesia.
Slowness in movement, delayed movement, tremors and poor control in motor movements are some of the symptoms of akinesia. Since the disorder progresses as a result of nerve damage that causes injury to the brain, the nervous system will not send any signals for making movement.
Progressive disease of neurology can also cause similar symptoms of akinesia in patients.
People who are treated with chronic illness may develop akinesia as side effect because of inactivity for long duration of time. In such cases, the patient can be recovered by doing physiotherapy for attaining flexibility in joints. Stretching exercise is beneficial for bringing in the loss of movements temporarily.
Certain medicines like antipsychotic drugs that are given for managing paranoia will exhibit symptoms of akinesia. The signs actually begin after several weeks of taking medicines. The symptoms of akinesia are shown when the patient is affected with Shy drager syndrome, which is a rare medical condition.
People with substance abuse like heroin will show slowness of movement resembling very much like akinesia.
Patients who have blood vessel related disorders like atherosclerosis can also show signs of akinesia as side effect.
The doctor will have to find the underlying cause and disorder that causes symptoms of akinesia for treating it properly. The treatment given for akinesia is the same as that of Parkinson’s disease. Physiotherapy is beneficial in restoring the loss of movement caused due to confinement of bed for long time.
Some of the drugs and therapies used for treating Akinesia are Lidocaine, Hyalase, local anesthesia, Levodopa, Dopamine, deep brain stimulation, phacoemulsification, Levobupivacaine and streptonigrin.
Most of the above drugs increase the quantity of dopamine in the brain thus providing and restoring the lost movements. In rare cases, surgery is done for patients who suffer from intense dyskinisia due to drug side effect. Surgical procedure includes Thalamotomy, pallidotomy and electrical stimulation during which globus pallidus and thalamus is corrected. Alternatively neural implants are done for adding the tissue that produces dopamine in brain.